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PM steel

Powder-Metallurgical Steel

These materials represent the optimum in steel technology. Thanks to the special manufacturing process, powder-metallurgical steel fulfills the highest requirements. PM steel often greatly improves machine service life.

As a worldwide distributor for the leading PM manufacturers Crucible and Erasteel, we possess extensive practical experience. We offer comprehensive consulting in all areas of application technology, heat treatment and processing. Our recommendations for the optimum choice of steel will help you to raise your productivity.

If you are wondering whether these advantages would also apply for your special project, contact us now! We shall be glad to analyze the nature of the task, show you the alternative tool steel solutions and advise you accordingly.

Powder-metallurgical high-performance steel, PM structure
Effect of the uniform structure on the cutting edge.

Conventional high-speed steel, HSS structure
Carbide clusters on the blade lead to micro- or macro-chipping.

The advantages of PM steel

1. Alloying
The highest alloy levels can be achieved without any adverse effect on mechanical characteristics.

2. Toughness
The uniform distribution of carbide and the absence of metallurgical defects increase fracture resistance and fatigue strength.

3. Wear resistance
The carbide volume and the hardness of the carbide increase the resistance to abrasive and adhesive surface stresses.

4. Grindability
As the small globules of carbide can be cut through, the machinability is enhanced.

5. Degree of barility
Powder-metallurgical steels are free of segregations. This leads to an appreciably higher degree of barility. Tools need less finishing.

6. Degree of purity
The highest possible degree of purity, “ultra-clean ”, results in excellent machinability and outstanding erosion properties.

Economy with PM steel

Powder-metallurgical specialty materials are more expensive. But often only at first glance. A detailed price/performance comparison between PM steel and conventional tool steels often leads to surprising results.

On the basis of the example, the profitability calculation shows a saving of €12,220 when CPM® 10V material is used.

Profitability example   
ToolCut-off dies 
Machine Automatic punch  
Production material St 37
Thickness 0.5 mm
 
Series size 8,000,000 parts  
Tools made of 1.3343 CPM® 10V
Material costs 80 € 360 €
Tool costs, total 4.000 € 4.280 €
Material costs portion 2,00 % 8,41 %
Number of pieces per remachining approx. 150,000 approx. 500.000
Number of times used 15 15
Costs per remachining 150 € 150 €
Costs per remachining 150 € 150 €
Max. number of parts per tool ca. 2.250.000 8.000.000
Two more tools required 8.000 € 0 €
More remachining costs (30 x €150) 4.500 € 0 €
Costs for series size 18.750 € 6.530

Application examples for PM steel

Tool type Production
material
Material Hardness HRc Performance
Cutting punch Cu-Be
s = 0,28 mm
1.2379
CPM® 10 V
61
62
75.000 Parts
1.500.000 Parts
(before remachining)
Sinter press stamp
(calibration)
Sinter iron D 7
Density 7.1 kg/dm³
1.3207
PMCPM® 10 V
64
63
54.000 Parts
75.000 Parts
Precision blanking stamp St 52
s = 8 mm
550 MPa
1.2379
CPM® Rex M4
58
59
20.000 Parts
60.000 Parts
(before remachining)
Embossing stamp St 2k
s = 1,2 mm
500 MPa
1.3343
CPM® 3V
59
59
25.000 Parts
300.000 Parts
(before remachining)
Sinter press tool Iron powder density
6,85 kg/dm3
1.2767
1.3207 PM
CPM® 9V
53
61
55
5.000 Parts
10.000 Parts
310.000 Parts
Die cutting tool QStE 460 TM
s = 2,0 mm
800 MPa
1.2379 + TICN
ASP® 2053
61
61
150.000 Parts
500.000 Parts
(to remachining)
Precision blanking stamp 16MnCr 5
s = 4,5 mm
550 MPa
1.2379
ASP® 2005
60
60
80.000 Parts
190.000 Parts
(to remachining)

ASP steel – Manufacturing process

Thanks to the ESH-DVALIN™ process (Electro Slag Heating), the ASP® materials are “ultra-clean ” high performance PM steels.

The basic principle of the ASP® steel process: The liquid steel melt is atomized using nitrogen. The powder obtained is encapsulated in the steel cylinder, evacuated, welded and hot isostatically pressed. The steel is then formed into round, flat or square profile shapes by forging and rolling.

  1. Graphite electrodes for heating of the melt bath and maintenance of a constant temperature 
  2. Slag blanket
  3. Molten steel
  4. N2 gas
  5. Atomization of the molten steel with nitrogen
  6. Encapsulation of the powder in the steel cylinder
  7. Welding of the cylinder after evacuation
  8. Isostatic hot compacting
  9. Forging
  10. Rolling

ASP steel – Analyses

Chemical compositions (guide values in %)
Steel
designation

C

Cr

Mo

W

V

Co

Stock list

Data
ASP® 2005 1,5 4,0 2,5 2,5 4,0 - Download stock list ASP 2005Stock list_ASP2005_EN Download data sheet ASP 2005_ASP2005_EN
ASP® 2012 0,6 4,0 2,0 2,1 1,5 - Download stock list ASP 2012Stock list_ASP2012_EN Download data sheet ASP 2012_ASP2012_EN
ASP® 2017 0,8 4,0 3,0 3,0 1,0 8,0 Download stock list ASP 2017Stock list_ASP2017_EN Download data sheet ASP 2017_ASP2017_EN
ASP® 2023 1,3 4,2 5,0 6,4 3,1 - Download stock list ASP 2023Stock list_ASP2023_EN Download data sheet ASP 2023_ASP2023_EN
ASP® 2030 1,3 4,2 5,0 6,4 3,1 8,5 Download stock list ASP 2030Stock list_ASP2030_EN Download data sheet ASP 2030_ASP2030_EN
ASP® 2052 1,6 4,8 2,0 10,5 5,0 8,0   Download data sheet ASP 2052_ASP2052_EN
ASP® 2053 2,5 4,2 3,1 4,2 8,0 - Download stock list ASP 2053Stock list_ASP2053_EN Download data sheet ASP 2053_ASP2053_EN
ASP® 2055 1,69 4,0 4,6 6,3 3,2 9,0 Download stock list ASP 2055Stock list_ASP2055_EN Download data sheet ASP 2055_ASP2055_EN
ASP® 2060 2,3 4,0 7,0 6,5 6,5 10,5 Download stock list ASP 2060Stock list_ASP2060_EN Download data sheet ASP 2060_ASP2060_EN

ASP steel – Mechanical properties

ASP 2000 – Mechanical properties

CPM Materials – Manufacturing process

With its CPM® process technology, Crucible has concentrated, among other things, on the manufacture of high alloy cold working steels. These innovative, high vanadium alloy, powder-metallurgical materials are as far as possible patented and fulfill the strictest performance requirements.

  1. Atomization
  2. Powder
  3. Filtering
  4. Filling
  5. Capsules
  6. Hot isostatic pressing
  7. Forging
  8. Rolling

CPM Materials – Analyses

Chemical compositions (guide values in %)
Steel
designation

C

Cr

Mo

W

V

Co

Data sheet
CPM® 3 V 0,8 7,5 1,3 - 2,8 - Download data sheet CPM 3VCPM_3V_E
CPM® 9 V 1,9 5,2 1,3 - 9,0 - Download data sheet CPM 9VCPM_9V_E
CPM® 10 V 2,4 5,2 1,3 - 9,7 - Download data sheet CPM 10VCPM_10V_E
CPM® 15 V 3,4 5,2 1,3 - 15,0 - Download data sheet CPM 15VCPM_15V_E
CPM® 420 V 2,3 14,0 1,0 - 9,0 - Download data sheet CPM 420VCPM_420V_E
CPM® S 30 V 1,5 14,0 2,0 - 4,0 - Download data sheet CPM S30VCPM_S30V_E
CPM® Rex M4 1,4 4,2 5,2 5,5 4,0 - Download data sheet CPM RexM4CPM_RexM4_E
CPM® Rex T15 1,6 4,0 - 12,0 5,0 5,0 Download data sheet CPM Rex T15CPM_RexT15_E
CPM® Rex 76 1,5 3,7 5,2 10,0 3,1 9,0 Download data sheet CPM Rex 76CPM_Rex76_E
CPM® Rex 121 3,4 4,0 5,0 10,0 9,5 9,0 Download data sheet CPM Rex 121CPM_Rex121_E

CPM Materials – Mechanical properties

CPM Materials – Mechanical properties

Tooling Alloys - USA

Zapp PM Steels | Tool Steels

Advantages of PM Steels

Main advantages of powder metallurgical high performance steels

PM – high performance steel
Positive effects of the uniform microstructure for best cutting edge stability.

Conventional high speed steel
Carbide clusters near the cutting edge produce micro- and macro-chipping.

Advantages

1. Alloys
The highest alloy levels can be achieved without any adverse effect on mechanical characteristics.

2. Toughness
The uniform distribution of carbides and absence of metallurgical defects increase security against fracture and fatigue strength.

3. Wear resistance
The volume and hardness of the carbides increase resistance to abrasive and adhesive wear.

4. Grindability
Machining ability is improved as a result of the small globular carbides.

5. Dimensional stability
Powder metallurgical steels are free of segregations. This leads to substantially improved dimensional stability. Tools require less machining and rework after heat treatment.

6. Cleanliness
Excellent polishing and EDM machining capabilities result from the highest possible degree of purity, known as »Ultra Clean«.

Economy Calculation PM Steels

It must be admitted that, at first sight, powder metallurgical high performance materials are relatively expensive. But often only at first sight. A detailed price/performance comparison between powder metallurgical and conventional tool steels often produces some surprising results.

An example of a cost-effectiveness study has revealed a saving of
$ 12220 by the use of Z-A11 PM material.

Tool Die  
Machine Stamping press  
Production material St 37 thickness
0.5 mm
 
Value of production run 8.000.000  
Steel grade 1.3343/M2 Z-A11 PM
Material costs $ 80 $ 360
Total tool costs $ 4000 $ 4280
Material cost proportion 2.00 % 8.41 %
Quantities per
regrind
approx.
150000
approx.
500000
Number of regrinds 15 15
Costs per regrind $ 150 $ 150
Max. number of parts per tool approx. 2250000 8000000
Two further tools required $ 8000 $ 0
Additional regrinding costs
(30x $ 150)
$ 4500 $ 0
Costs of production run $ 18750 $ 6530

Wear Resistant Tool Steels

Z-A11 PM
Z-A11LV PM
Z-Wear PM
D2 (ASTM A681)

High Speed Steels

Z-A11 PM
Z-A11LV PM
Z-Wear PM
D2 (ASTM A681)